The third episode behinds the discussion on the intermediate groups that lay between Judaism and Christianity in antiquity.

Karin Zetterhold designates some of these groups occupying the middle ground of identity as Jesus-oriented Judaisms. They undoubtedly saw themselves as legitimate successors of the early Jesus movement, and some embraced ideas legitimately regarded as Jewish by even Jews classified as rabbinic.[1] I believe this new phrase by Karin Zetterhold is a helpful term. It causes us to reorient the discussion on this topic.

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[1] Karin Hedner Zetterholm, “Jesus-oriented visions of Judaism in antiquity,” Scripta Instituti Donneriani Aboensis 27 (2016):37-60. Whether they represented acceptable options today is irrelevant historically, but not emotionally.